Eating for Credit
Waters’ Claim

Waters’ claim-the main idea or opinion-is found throughout the paper, but is introduced in the very first paragraph. The claim that Alice Waters wants her audience to believe is that children in public schools aren’t learning to eat well or exercising well.
Alice Waters claims:
· Schools should not only serve food, but should also teach it in an interactive and academic way/subject.
· Obesity can be fought if food health is taught in schools.
Waters’ Grounds
Waters’ starts her essay talking about how children aren’t learning to eat well and aren’t exercising as much as they should. She then goes on to talk about the various things they have tried in order to fix this problem and what the dangers of not teaching the harmful effects of bad eating habits are.
· 50 years ago there was an obesity crisis, and obesity is a negative thing.
o Gymnasiums, tracks, and playgrounds were built to improve a healthier lifestyle.
o Physical education became part of the curriculum (K-12)
§ Students were graded according to how well they did. (made them work harder which in turn made them healthier)
· It is important for schools to not just serve food, but to also teach about healthy eating habits.
o It would solve/fight obesity problems.
o Teaching children about food, changes their lives.
o Children’s eating habits stay with them for the rest of their lives.
· Families should have regular dinner as a family.
o Without it, children are pushed into the unhealthy fast-food industry.
o Unhealthy foods make up most of school lunch programs which “addicts” and “encourages” children to eat unhealthy foods more often.
· Waters points out that fast-food is fast, cheap, and efficient however:
o These interpretations of what our food should comprise of, is changing us negatively.
o We need to take back responsibility for the health of our children and our culture as well.
· Having a sufficient education about food is good
o Gives children a new relationship about food
o Engages them in an interactive education
o Shows them the consequences of their eating habits
Waters’ Warrant
The warrant that I got from Alice Waters’ essay is that public schools have not been educating children to eat and exercise well, which they should be doing so that children can live to lead a much more healthy life, and also so that obesity issues can be lessened. If children are educated in their schools on the health consequences that they may encounter later on in life if they don’t improve their eating habits, then they will have a smaller chance of becoming obese and will be healthier. This allows them to do things later in their lives that they want to do because they will be healthier. (ex: sports, and other physical activities) This connects the grounds and the claims together because it explains why an education in healthy eating and exercising should be taught in schools.
Waters’ Backing
Waters’ ethos is credible. She talks about the Martin Luther King Jr. School where teaching children about healthy eating habits is in the curriculum. They are taught about the benefits of eating healthy in history, science, and math classes without being forced to diet this way. She gives many good reasons as to why educating children in school about healthy eating habits is important. She also explains how this is a good idea because they aren’t forcing children to eat healthy, they are just encouraging it by teaching them about how it will affect their lives. The fact that she addresses a possible resolution to our obesity problems also makes her ethos plausible and credible. There is a lot of opinion in this essay and everyone has the right to express their own thoughts and opinions, thus she can’t really be wrong when stating her own opinion.
Rebuttal of Waters’ Claim, Grounds, and Warrant
Counterarguments that can be presented:
· Some schools actually do incorporate the importance of healthy eating and exercising well in their curriculum.
· How do we actually know for a fact that teaching children about healthy eating habits will keep them from being obese in the future? Waters says that teaching children about food will prevent them from ever becoming obese. Take notice to the word “ever.” Just because they are taught as young children to eat healthy, doesn’t mean they will never become obese.
· How do we know that these healthy eating habits will stay with children for the rest of their lives as Waters says the habits will? It could be so simple to pick up unhealthy eating habits twenty years down the road especially if a tragic event occurs. (Sometimes tragic events trigger unhealthy eating habits because of depression)
· Waters says that they aren’t trying to scare children with the health consequences of their eating habits, so what’s the point? If they aren’t really forcing children to comprehend the negative affects of unhealthy eating, then children won’t have a new and healthier relationship with food. There is a chance that there will be no results from their teachings. If this happens, then it becomes words with no weight on their meaning.
· Schools shouldn’t be the source of influence for children to eat healthy. Who says that they must be responsible for it?


Annotated Bibliography
1. Cynthia, Sysol. “Constitutional and Indispensable Legislation: Mandatory Random Steroid Testing for High School Athletes.”Journal of Law and Education Oct. 2008: 597-603. Proquest Web. Nov. 01, 2009.
Summary: This article addresses states that have high schools that are beginning to consider steroid testing for their athletes. It also discusses the penalties that students face if caught or test positive for steroids. Parents have sued some school districts in protest. Why? Because they believe that their students’ privacy rights are being breached. They are finding that maybe the government does not have the right to insist that students take an unwanted steroid test.
Analysis: This article will be helpful in explaining the effects that steroids have on the general public. It shows how vulnerable people can be to steroids, especially young athletes.

2. G. Gregory Haff. “ Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: Part II.” Strength and Conditioning Journal Feb. 2007: 50-57. Proquest Web. Nov. 01, 2009
Summary: This article takes the more positive view of anabolic androgenic steroids. It explains how anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been prescribed to patients for legit clinical purposes. Then the article explains how AAS’s have assisted in the healing, and the corrections of certain health conditions and human disorders. There is good data in this article that proves that there are benefits of AAS’s for certain clinical applications that most people do not recognize, or realize.
Analysis: This article is excellent because it provides the positive view on taking steroids which is hard to find. Most articles write about how bad steroids are but this article explains clinical benefits of steroids.

3. Matthew Petrocelli, Trish Oberweis, Joseph Petrocelli. “GETTING HUGE, GETTING RIPPED: A QUALITATIVE EXPLORATION OF RECREATIONAL STEROID USE.” Journal of Drug Issues Fall 2008: 1187-1205. Proquest Web. Nov. 01, 2009.
Summary: This article appeals strictly to the recreational use of steroids. This article talks about how steroids have developed overtime. How the government did not really take action and begin monitoring the use of steroids until more recently. More and more professional athletes are turning to steroids and running a great risk so that they can enhance their performance and keep up with the competition.
Analysis: This article will be good for my research paper because it talks about the effects that steroids have on the body and why athletes are so inclined to take a risk in order to get ahead in their sport of choice.

4. Michael Evans-Brown, Rob Dawson, Jim McVeigh. “The dire consequences of doping?” The Lancet 7 Nov. 2008: 1544. Proquest Web. Nov. 01, 2009.
Summary: This article is similar to the above article because it too talks about the uses of steroids and how they enhance performance. This article also addresses other motivations behind using steroids (achieving the “perfect body.”) This article also notes how the use of anabolic steroids have been mostly associated as a negative thing; but it shows how it is not always a bad thing.

Analysis: This article will be good because it compares the two views of taking anabolic steroids. It also discusses the reasons people have for taking them which can be for cosmetic reasons.

5. Stephens, Mark. “Supplements and Sports: Honest Advice. American Family Physician.”American Family Physician 1 Nov. 2008: 1025. Proquest Web. Nov. 01, 2009.
Summary: This article discusses how sports supplements (steroids) have evolved over the years. It talks about the commonality of steroid use in sports and why people take them. The steroid use statistics of high-school athletes are given. It also says how steroids isn’t the only sport supplement used. Shakes with creatine (which is found in steroids) are also used.
Analysis: This article will be helpful because it gives examples of other types of athletic performance substances used other than steroids. This is important information to use in my paper because it shows that there are other ways of achieving sports goals, which have the same effects of steroids without actually using them.

6. The Basics of Anabolics. (1988, November 21). New York Times (Late Edition (east Coast)) p. C.13. Retrieved Nov. 01, 2009, from New York Times. (Document ID: 960882621). Print.
Summary: This article identifies the two main types of steroids: anabolic, and cortical. It also talks about the specific anabolic steroids that are banned (16) that are identifiable by laboratory tests. It also talks about the long term effects of using steroids. (Skin disorder, hives, and in some cases rare types of anemia.) This article goes into more depth of what steroids are composed of and what effect each component has on the body.
Analysis: This article will be helpful to my paper because the components of steroids and how they affect the human body are explained. It will be important for me to discuss the after effects that steroids have on the human body in my paper.


For my research paper I would like to discuss steroids and the effects it can have on athletes, be it positive or negative. Taking steroids is a controversial topic. Why? Because it helps assist athletes in getting ahead in their chosen sport because the steroids make them get stronger. By getting stronger quicker, athletes (for example:) are able to throw the ball harder, and hit the ball further. This is an unfair to the athletes who do not take steroids because it gives the steroid taking athletes an unfair advantage. Taking steroids is controversial for another reason because there are many health risks involved, and in some cases can lead to death. I am interested in this topic because I am an athlete myself and steroid use is an often debated topic in the sports world. Because I play tennis, in my paper I could even address some professional tennis athletes who have taken steroids. Some questions I have concerning this topic are: do the negative outcomes of using steroids actually outweigh the possible positive outcomes? And are steroids really as bad and overused as the media says or are they just blowing it out of proportion? I think that one of the two questions I previously asked concerning my topic, could also be used as my research question. By answering these questions, both sides of steroid use would be examined and brought to light and would not show bias. It would show actual research on the topic and not just the bias the media portrays.

Erin -- I think you are on the right path with your topic and questions. You will want to use the reference materials you will learn about in class tonight to help narrow and define your search terms more. Focusing on professional tennis might narrow your topic too much, but it might not. There is a lot of information out there on steroids. See what you find. There may not be as much information on steroid use in scholarly sources as I imagine there is. Remember that the majority of your sources should be scholarly. -- Leah


As time goes on, our world changes without a doubt; and no one would argue against this. Not only does our world change, so do the meaning of words. Lust is one of them. The word lust originated in 1230, from the word lascivious with the meaning: "to please, delight.” Lust is derived from the Proto-Germanic root “lustuz,” (meaning “pleasure, desire”) which was derived from the Proto-Indo-European root “las” (meaning "to be eager, wanton, or unruly"). Lascivious comes directly from “las” and was used in a negative lecturing way by early Church writers, and later became associated with desire and love. In the 11th to 15th centuries the northern European usage of the verb still meant simply "to please, delight;" or "pleasure".
The word lust has liberated itself from the Christianization of definition of the word. The definition of lust as having a strong sexual desire was first declared in 1526 in biblical use. The original usage of this word was “joyful, merry” which was in 1374. It later on became to have the meaning: “full of healthy vigor.” The main meaning for the word lust nowadays, is defined as “sinful sexual desire, degrading animal passion” which was developed in late O.E. from the word's use in Bible translations. The word lust has obviously evolved quite a bit over the course of history.


As my second article choice, I chose to read by Marianne M. Jennings. This article addresses the sexual harassment that occurs in the workplace. Jennings points out that she herself has never experienced sexual harassment while on the job. She speaks about how men may feel less inclined to be as friendly as they normally would. They tend to hold it back so that they are not suspected of "committing" sexual harassment. At some points, it almost seems as if she is complaining that she has never experienced sexual harassment herself. Why would this bother her? Merely because she was not receiving as much attention as other women in the office. She uses pathos to try and get the reader to see her side. In a sense it is effective because it gets the reader to feel sorry for women, but at the same time it is ineffective because she never personally experienced sexual harassment in the workplace and it is not factual. She uses some logos and some ethos but she does most of her persuasion through pathos. She does not have much credibility (ethos) to her arguments and statements because as said before, she never experienced sexual harassment in the office firsthand. Jennings does not use much logos because she does not use specific data, however she does give examples and stories in her writings. One example she gives is how men are afraid to close their office doors if they are in a meeting with a woman in fear that the woman may take it the wrong way.
Jennings appeals to her audience on a more emotional level.(pathos) My impression is that her audience is directed more towards younger women in the workplace. However, at the same time, she seems to want to educate the general public about this issue of sexual harassment in the workplace. By reading this article, readers will become more informed of what goes on in the workplace, as it also makes women more aware and alert to their surroundings. Her examples appeal mostly to people's emotional senses.
For the most part, Jennings has good arguments that support the fact that sexual harassment occurs in the workplace, but the fact that she uses non-personal examples makes it hard to connect with her. All her examples are generalized. They are not personal experiences that she herself has had. This is proven because she even admitted that she never experienced it. Because of this, her arguments can come across as weak.
However, not all of her arguments in her article were weak. She did have strengths as well. Even though her examples were not her own personal experiences, at least she still used other people's stories and experiences to get her point of view across to her readers. The stories she wrote about were related directly to the topic she was addressing. For that, She was successful; especially when she used real life examples to communicate her standpoint.

5 Most Common Errors:
1. Pronouns
2. Parallel Structure
3. Use of punctuation (what to use in certain spots in sentences)
4. Uses of "who" and "that" (when to use each one)
5. Parallel Structure