Annie Bourbonais
11/30/09
Eng 101.6
Leah Stahl
Eighteen and under, still in Juvenile Court
The argument continues to stand about juveniles being tried in adult courts. There have been countless arguments for and against juveniles being tried in adult courts. Trying juveniles in adult court when they are still under the age of eighteen is an unsuccessful way to handle these criminals. The way that juveniles who have committed a crime should be handled is that they should be tried in juvenile court system and retried (if found necessary by a jury or judge) once they are over the age to be in the adult court system. This is the most effective way to deal with the juvenile delinquents because of the help that can come from the juvenile delinquency centers.
People who are pro juveniles being tried as adults argue that the punishment that is given at adult trials is what is deserved. People argue that once a juvenile can understand what they are doing is wrong, they should be able to take the consequence that comes with it. A study was done and referenced in Megan C. Kurylchek and Brian D. Johnson’s article “The Juvenile Penalty: A Comparison of Juvenile and Young Adult Sentencing Outcomes in Criminal Court” that spoke about blameworthiness. It spoke about how juvenile’s tried in the juvenile court system are thought of as less blameworthy because of their lack of control over their behavior (491). These points are not the most important thing when it comes to thinking about the future of our society and getting these juveniles functioning when they are back in society.
The emotional maturity of the juveniles is also still changing. The emotional maturity of a juvenile can differ immensely which can make it difficult for them to live in the conditions of prisons (Poythress 76). In the threatening environment of the adult prisons, it is difficult for the juveniles to be able to be mature enough to handle the situations that are presented to them in these prisons. This emotional maturity could be handled by the availability of mental services, but these services are unavailable in adult prisons (Choo par. 13). Emotional maturity is an important factor to rehabilitation that should be thought about when deciding that juvenile delinquency centers are a better choice for those under eighteen.
The juveniles in juvenile delinquency center are able to get help for many of their problems. At juvenile detention centers many more options are available for the juveniles there to get counseling. In the article by Daniel C. Murrie et al. writes about the amount of juveniles who are found to have mental disorders (par 1). Often times these helpful counselors are able to help the juveniles to be able to recognize their problems, so then when they are in the “real world” again they have a better chance of succeeding. The extra available help creates a better way for the juveniles to learn from what they have done and hopefully become successful in the future. This is the goal, to have function, well-adjusted people, when their time in juvenile delinquency centers is up. It is important to get the juveniles mentally healthy and to do this they must have the opportunity to work with counselors.
Another reason that juveniles should not be tried in adult courts is because of the environment of an adult prison. These young people are put in a situation where they are forced to interact with other prisoners and this can cause for a bad situation. Joseph R. Biden, in his article “Attacking Youth Violence”, writes, “…they might be assaulted, raped, or sodomized by the adult prisoners while inside an adult facility” (par. 23). Having the juveniles in this situation can be a very frightening one. This shows that they will be treated no differently than any other prisoner. This can lead to a more violent person when the prisoners get released (Biden par. 23). The violence that the criminals are exposed to can then be projected at others when they are released from prison.
Juveniles are also given less attention in the adult prisons with their physical needs while they are still growing. They are still in the midst of growing up and their bodies are still developing. In the article “Minor Hardships” the author speaks about one encounter she had with a prison with juveniles in it: “Fed the standard adult prison diet of about 2,500 calories a day, the adolescents, who may require as much 4,000 calories a day, reported that they were always hungry” (Choo par 3).This is a terrible thing for an adolescent. Juveniles are still developing physically and in order to fully develop, these needs must be met. It is hard for the government to make certain exceptions in prison for the juveniles, so it is a much better solution to keep juveniles in juvenile delinquency centers until they are able to be retried at age eighteen.
Those who fight for juveniles to be tried in adult courts argue that there are ways to fix the problems found in the actual prisons. There are also often new facilities to keep juveniles, away from these problems, such as threats from other prisoners and the harsh conditions (Kupchik 249). Here they are not exposed to such harsh realities found in the prison and are specifically for adults. They are able to be monitored and kept away from other prisoners so that their living environment can become safer. These facilities tend to just resemble juvenile delinquency centers. They are a waste of the government’s money when they have perfectly good centers that can do an even better job at trying make these delinquents successful people.
There is also the argument that if a juvenile commits a terrible crime, such as murder, they should have to deal with the adult consequence. I do not fully disagree, but provide another solution. I think it is important for a jury or judge to be able to reassess the case once the juvenile delinquent is past the age that they would be tried in juvenile courts. I think it is important for the juveniles have the opportunity to grow and be in an environment where they can be safer, even if they are terrible criminals. If a judge or a jury, at the time of their ‘coming of age’, decides it is best to put them in prisons then that would be a good time to decide that. I know that a ‘grown up’ crime deserves more than a few years in a juvenile delinquency center, but it is better to keep them in a safe environment until they are more emotionally and physically capable of handling the situation of jail time.
Juveniles should continue to be tried as such until they reach the age of adulthood, eighteen. It is important for juveniles to be in an environment that is acceptable for their age instead of the automatic move up with adults who are much older. The circumstances in adult prisons are unacceptable for those who are still have not reached adulthood. The best solution to this problem would to continue to try juveniles in juvenile court and then, once they reach the age of eighteen, to be susceptible to adult courts and prisons. Once the criminal has reached the age of eighteen a jury or a judge could make the decision of whether or not they need to be put in adult prisons. This is an effective way to get a punishment that can be acceptable for a large amount of different crimes and can make sure the juveniles get the right kind of treatment and are able to develop fully.


A7)
Eating for Credit

Waters’ Claim

Waters’ claim is that children need to be informed and surrounded by the healthy eating. Eating healthy is found less and less in our society and needs to be brought to the public school systems so that children can learn about healthy eating and be informed. Children should be taught within their classes and get credit while learning about healthy eating.

Waters’ Grounds
Waters writes. “…nine million children over 6 are obese…” (par 3). She also says that children develop certain ways of eating that stick with them through the rest of their lives. By instructing children on healthy living, they are able to apply these principles in their everyday life and lessen the obesity in children today. Children are not taught about healthy eating enough in their homes. Many families resort to eating fast food for multiple meals for their children because everything is very fast pace. Parents are not teaching their own children to eat healthy and by incorporating these healthy foods into class time, students learn how to keep themselves healthy.
Waters’ Warrant
Children, by learning about their food and being able to prepare it they have more of an appreciation for the food that they have. They are able to know where their food came from and this can make them feel proud about their accomplishment. By being able to incorporate this kind of eating rather than just giving healthy options in the cafeteria makes it a longer lasting effect in the children’s lives. The classes in school are able to help the students gain better eating habits for their future and to be able to prolong their lives by not acquiring the diseases associated with obesity.
Waters’ Backing
The author is some-what a creditable source. She does have a background in healthy eating and she does know what types of foods are best for a healthy diet. She would be well informed, due to her culinary experience, some statistics of obesity. I am not sure that she has expertise on children. It states that she is a chef in California, but it is not mentioned that she has any knowledge, beyond the common knowledge held by many citizens, about children and schooling. Although she does mention the schools nearby with children using nutrition in their normal classes, I question how she knows this is affective if she is not a teacher who is there.
Rebuttal
Why would children think to eat any differently just because they were shown it in school? Even though they learn the hard work will that make them think about the hard work no matter what food it is they are eating? Children do not always fully understand the whole concept behind eating healthy. They do not necessarily have the choice to eat healthy. Often times, if not all the time, the choice of meals lays with the parents. Therefore it becomes the parents’ responsibility to keep up with a healthy routine. This is done by some parents, while others chose to continue to keep fast food as a regular happening in the household. Parents need to accept their role as being the ones to help influence their child’s eating habits.


A6)
Tang, Connie M., Narina Nunez, and Martin Bourgeois. “Effects of Trial Venue and Pretrial
Bias on the Evaluation of Juvenile Defendants.” Criminal Justice Review 34.2 (2009): 210-225. Print.


In this article, studies were done to show how the public views juveniles that are tried as adults versus those tried in the juvenile courts. In the first study the researchers took a sample of college students and asked them how they viewed people who were 16 years old and were being tried in adult court, 16 years old and tried in juvenile court, and 19 years old and being tried in adult court. The study found that the college students judged the people who were juveniles and tried in adult courts more harshly. The researchers then took a sample of a community of multiple different ages and repeated the same study. This study showed the same results as the other study. This study showed that the public automatically associates juveniles who are being tried in adult courts more harshly. These are those juveniles’ peers and possible selection for the jury and can have a bias opinion before coming in.

Sprott, Jane B. “Do Youthful Offenders Reject Adult Punishment Norms?!” Department of Sociology and Anthropology (April 2003): 243-257. Print.

The society we live in tends to represent offenders as totally different from normal society. The society often thinks that because these people were convicts they are not valuing society’s norms. There was a study done on this and it showed that the people in prison did not view themselves as not part of the society’s norms. They seemed to uphold these norms in their minds. It also showed that these criminals, when asked about punishments that should be given to juvenile delinquents, they do not think that there should be more lenient punishments.

Poythress, Norman, et al. “The Competence-Related Abilities of Adolescents Defendants in Criminal Court.” Law and Human Behavior 30.1 (2006): 75-92. Print.

A study was done on males, mainly Caucasian, under 18 held in jail compared to 16-17 year olds held in juvenile court and males 18-24 in jail. The researchers were trying to find if immaturity was found in the teens in adult jail and should be not put in adult court facilities because of that. The study showed little difference between the competence of the adults and the teens. This shows that immaturity did not impair the individuals in this study.

Kurlychek, Megan C., and Brain D. Johnson. “The Juvenile Penalty: A Comparison of Juvenile and Young Adult Sentencing Outcomes in Criminal Court.” Criminology 42.2 (2004): 485-514. Print.

In this article studies were done on juveniles tried in adult courts and young adults in adult courts. The study was done to see if more leniencies were given to the juveniles in criminal court as opposed to young adults in criminal courts. When the study was complete the opposite was found. The researchers found that contrary to their beliefs, they saw that juveniles were being tried more harshly then the young adults. The implications that come with juveniles being moved to an adult court often means to a juror that they are in more trouble and should be punished more harshly.
Kupchik, Aaron. “The Correctional Experiences of Youth in Adult and Juvenile Prisons.”

Justice Quarterly 24.2 (June 2007): 247-270. Print.

This shows a study between inmates in adult correctional facilities and those held in juvenile facilities. The initial thoughts were that since there are many counselors and have a greater emphasis on treatment and that they feel they have better access. In the study done it was found that those kept in an adult correctional facility actually felt that they had better access to these services offered. This is odd because there is more victimizing in adult criminal facilities. Due to the amount of juveniles in adult facilities, there have become more counseling and education opportunities and guards to keep the victimizing to a minimum.

Murrie, Dr. Daniel C. et al. “Psychiatric Symptoms among Juveniles Incarcerated in Adult Prisons.” Psychiatric Services 60.8 (August 2009): 1092-1097. Print.

A study was done with participants who were boys of age 16-17 who were in adult correctional facilities. They were given a test to show their mental health. The results from this study showed that more than half of the participants were above the rates of what a mentally healthy individual should be at and at a mental health level that is the “warning range” for mental instability. There was also a large percentage that was at the “caution” range as well. This shows that the adult correctional facilities do not have enough resources for the juveniles in these facilities and have poorer mental health because of this.


A5)
The topic I chose to write about for my research paper is juveniles being tried as adults in our court systems in the United States. Some argue that children who commit an adult crime should face the same consequences as adults, especially when their punishment will lead into their adult years. Others argue that a juvenile must be treated as such until they reach the age of adulthood. This subject is debated often and s hard to come to an agreement on. Some questions from this subject would be:
Why would children be tried as adults?
Who gets to decide whether a juvenile is tried as an adult?
What are the consequences of trying a juvenile as an adult or vice-versa?

Annie -- Sound like you are on the right track. This topic seems narrowed enough to be successful. Your questions point to a particular focus, which is good. Now you need to think about what words (search terms) you will use to locate sources. Try to come up with as many as possible, as well as different combinations of words. You have lots of good key words in your questions that will work well during your research. -- Leah



A3)
The word I chose to write my paper on is the word sister. This word’s definition in The American Heritage Dictionary is, “a female having one or both parents in common with another person”. This was the first definition found in the dictionary, but there are also many different meanings for the word. A sister is sometimes someone there is a close bound with. A sister can also be a nun or a word used in church to speak of other women. A sister has also become a slang term used when referring to women. For example a person might say, “What’s up sister?” Also, the word sister can refer to closely related places. Another use of the word is a women who is a sorority. They refer to themselves and each other as sisters. The word is thought to come from both the Old English word sweoster and the Old Norse systir. The word sister dates back to before the twelfth century.

I had problems with punctuation varitey, misplaced modifiers, punctuating problems, subject and verb agreement, and the MLA format sections of the style and grammar assesment test.