The Essay that I decided to analyze was ‘Stop the Clock’ by Amy Wu. The audience of this essay is both college students and middle-aged people. I came with this conclusion because the essay is printed in a book for college students and also in Newsweek that adults tend to read. It also deals with the generations of both the students and the adults. The thesis of this essay is that Wu is a part of a generation that is concerned with saving time but she doesn’t know why they are doing it.
Wu starts out her essay talking about how her aunt “tends to her house as if it were her child.” Wu’s aunt likes to clean her house and takes pride in doing things herself. Wu then describes her memories from her aunt’s house such as sliding across the freshly waxed floors and smelling her aunt’s homemade soup. She then goes on to talk about how in college she ate every meal out and rushed everything just to get it done. She talks about how she pitied her mother and grandmother because she didn’t understand why they would take their time doing things the old-fashioned way. Wu then says that people in her generation are rushing through life and she doesn’t understand why. She gives examples like people baking brownies in the microwave and buying throwaway underwear and contacts. Another example she used was schools debating whether or not students should go on their Washington DC trip or if they should just tour it online. Wu then tells us that one day she cooked a homemade meal for her family and wrote a letter to her cousin. She describes how happy and fulfilled she was watching her family’s faces and hearing back from her cousin. Wu finally realizes that if we forget the important things in life then we will lose out in the end.
Wu uses a lot of pathos in her essay. The way she uses it is in her examples of growing up in her aunt’s house. Instead of just telling us that her aunt likes to clean her house she shows us by writing about all the sights and smells that are in her aunt’s house. This use of pathos helps me believe in her essay because I feel like I am right there with her. The examples make me more interested in what she is writing and that helps a lot. Her examples engage me in her essay and appeal to my emotions. When Wu talks about how she doesn’t know why her generation is rushing so much she is appealing to logos. She is making me think about why my generation rushes so much. When she talks about these things it makes me more interested in her work because she makes me think about things that I don’t usually think too much about. Logos is good for essays because it makes the reader get involved in the reading instead of just reading it. Wu uses ethos by her style of writing. I believe in her story because she uses examples that make me understand who she is as a person and her personality and character. The way she writes makes me feel like I am right there with her and that is a good thing. I agree with her writing because I agree with her ideas and thinking. She points out things that I believe in and understand. I agree with her that generations today are always rushing and never slowing down.



Etymology
The word “happiness’ was first recorded in 1530. Before that, many European words for “happy” at first meant “lucky.” An exception to this was in Welsh happy meant “wise.” During World War II it was used frequently as a suffix such as “bomb-happy” where it expressed the idea of being dazed or frazzled from stress. According to Wikipedia, happiness is a state of mind or feeling characterized by contentment, love, satisfaction, pleasure, or joy. Dictionary.com defines happiness as good fortune, pleasure, contentment, or joy. In Buddhism, it is thought that happiness is beyond material things and is only attainable through an attentive practice leading to getting rid of cravings and hate. In Catholicism it is said that true happiness can only come from a relationship with God. Philosophers and religious thinkers often define happiness in terms of living a good life rather than simply as emotion. Aristotle stated that happiness is the only thing that humans desire for its own sake, unlike riches, honor, health, or friendship. Research has identified a number of attributes that correlate with happiness such as relationships, marital status, employment, health, and religious involvement. Researchers have also found that about 50% of one’s happiness depends on a person’s genes. A widely publicized study from 2008 reported that happiness may spread from person to person in social networks such as family members, friends, or neighbors. Studies have suggested that religious people are happier and less stressed. It is not clear though whether this is because of the social contact or not. Older Americans are also generally happier than younger adults. Young adults reported feeling more anger, anxiety, depression, financial problems, and career and relationship stress than older Americans. There are many different views and ideas on how to gain and maintain happiness. Overall the idea of happiness is being content with yourself and with your life.
If you enjoy life then you are happy.


Style and Grammar Test errors
1. Punctuating Titles
2. Misplaced modifiers
3. Pronouns
4. Quoting and Using MLA Style
5. Punctuation Variety



A5

The topic I am interested in researching is xenotransplantation. This area of study deals with the transplantation of living cells, tissues, or organs from one species to another. An example of this is taking a pig’s organ and putting it into a human. Because there is such a huge shortage of organs in the world many people die while waiting for a transplant. Xenotransplants could save thousands of patients waiting for organs. There is much controversy regarding this idea though. Since the organs will be coming from animals the animal’s organs have to be genetically modified in order to be compatible with the humans. Another controversial concept is that the animals will be bred and killed in order to use their organs. Many people are against this idea because it cuts the animal’s life short. These are only a few of the controversies I will be covering regarding this topic. The reason that I am interested in xenotransplantation is that it applies to our generations today. In this day and age more and more people are dying from cancer and other diseases. If this science is found to be truly effective then it would change everyone’s lives. I think that this is an important topic to be informed about and it is something everyone should follow. In my paper I would like to focus on how this science works and the possible outcomes that result from it as well as the ethical issues it brings up.

Research questions
· Should xenotransplantation be permitted in hospitals today?
· Is it ethical to raise animals only for use in xenotransplantation?
· Is xenotransplantation safe and reliable for long time use?
· Do animal organs work as well as human organs in patients?
· What are the downfalls of using animal organs in humans?

Sarah -- What a great topic! I think this will make for an interesting paper. You probably want to narrow your topic down a little bit to focus on one issue, such as the rights of animals or the biological/medical issues surrounding xenotransplantation. These in particular are two very different aspects of the topic. Think about which one is more interesting to you and go with that angle. Of course, your research might dictate which path to take depending on how much information you find. -- Leah



A6

Ethical and Legal Issues in Technology: Xenotransplantation
Summary:
This article talks about the issues surrounding the technology of xenotransplantation. It talks about the two groups of people; those who are interested in trying xenotransplantaion and those that do not want it. Some of the benefits it talks about are that with xenotransplantation we could potentially be able to treat all patients waiting for organs. Patients would also live longer and have a better quality of life. A big potential risk this article discusses is that the virus from the pig organ could infect the human recipient, mutate, and then infect the rest of the population. This article also talks about some possible procedures for starting xenotransplantation. It says that only a small number of transplants should be performed and then those patients should be watched for a period of time before more transplants are done. It also talks about how the public should be informed of the risks and that society needs to come up with a way to compromise over these risks. A big part of this article is the legal issues surrounding xenotransplantation. It lists many issues surrounding the technology and how it goes against these legal articles.
Analysis:
This article helped introduce the idea behind xenotransplantation and also some of the issues surrounding it. It also helped introduce me to the possible benefits and risks involved in the technology and how people plan on dealing with them. The biggest part of this article was the legal issues surrounding xenotransplantation. I don’t really think that I would use many of the legal issues in my paper but it is good for if I wanted to talk a little bit about it. Overall this article introduced me to a lot of new information and got me thinking about how I wanted to write my paper.
Works Cited:
Bach, Fritz H, Adrian J Ivinson, and Christopher Weeramantry. "Ethical and Legal Issues in
Technology: Xenotransplantation." American Journal of Law and Medicine. 27 (2001): 283-300. Health Module. Web. 4 Nov 2009. Print.


Xenotranplantation: Animal Rights and Human Wrongs
Summary:
This article focused more on animal rights and the animals that are in question for use in xenotransplantation. The two animals in question are pigs and primates. Chimpanzees are very much like humans but because of this
fact and also because they are an endangered species pigs are more likely to be used. This article also talks about how human life outweighs that of an animal. Some people argue that there is no logical reason to distinguish morally between the pain and suffering felt by animals and that felt by human beings. Others say that animals have value in their own right and do not exist to be harmfully exploited by man. Genetically modified animals are also discussed in this article. It talks about how pigs will be genetically modified to get rid of the genes that cause illnesses in humans. The ethics surrounding this is also discussed.

Analysis:
I found this article to be very helpful and interesting. I think that I will be able to use a lot of information surrounding the different benefits of using each animal in xenotransplantation as well as a good chunk of information for the side of my paper revolving around the ethics behind using animals. I can also use information regarding genetically modified animals and supply part of my background from this article.
Works Cited:
Mani, Vasudevan, and Ryan Mathew. "Xenotransplantation: Animal Rights and Human
Wrongs." Ethics & Medicine. 19.1 (2003): 55-62. Health Module. Web. 4 Nov 2009. Print.


Xentransplantation: Progress and Promise
Summary:
The different types of rejection from transplantation are discussed in this article. The three main kinds of immunological barriers are hyperacute, acute vascular, and cellular rejection. Hyperacute rejection can be solved by producing pigs that express human complement regulatory proteins capable of inhibiting the viruses. Acute vascular rejection can be solved by supplying the primates or pigs with immunosuppressive regimens but these could not be handled by humans. Cellular rejection can also be solved using immunosuppressive drugs. This article also talks briefly about the risks surrounding the infectious diseases and ethical issues surrounding both animals and humans.
Analysis:
This article will help me a lot for talking about the different types of immunological barriers that make xenotransplantation so tricky. I will be able to go into detail surrounding these problems and provide background information on why they cause problems. This article will also help for when I talk about the risks surrounding the infectious diseases that may occur during xenotransplantation.
Works Cited:
Vanderpool, Harold Y. "Xenotransplantation: Progress and Promise." Western Journal of
Medicine. (1999): 333-335. Health Module. Web. 4 Nov 2009. Print.

Starting Clinical Trials of Xenotransplantation-Reflections on the Ethics of the Early Phase
Summary:
This article talks about the ethical issues surrounding humans. It goes into depth about the risks to the public and what to do about them. Questions about how the public should be informed and included are also involved. The Helsinki declaration, which is the basis for the ethical code for medical research, is also discussed in detail. Articles from the declaration are compared to the different aspects of xenotransplantation. This article also talks about the different forms of need for xenotransplantation: Life-quality and life-saving.
Article:
This article will help a lot with the side of my paper dealing with the ethics involving humans. There is a lot of detail surrounding the different risks to humans and what to do about them. This article will provide a good amount of the background for the side and will also help to explain and back up the information. Overall I believe that this will be a source that I keep coming back to.
Works Cited:
Welin, Stellan. "Starting Clinical Trials of Xenotransplantation-Reflections on the Ethics of the
Early Phase." Journal of Medical Ethics. 26.4 (2000): 231-236. Research Library Core. Web. 4 Nov 2009. Print.


Medicine: Opposing Viewpoints
Summary:
The section on xentotransplantation in this book talked about both sides of the issue. It talked about the benefits and the risks involved in this new technology. The benefits section discusses how pigs are a great choice for the studies and also how scientists are researching how to get rid of the viruses inside of them. Hyperacute rejection is when the immune system goes into overdrive and kills the transplanted organ in minutes. Researchers have found a system called inducing tolerance that coaxes the recipient’s body to accept the donor organ with little or no immosuppresion. Megan Sykes and her work is discussed in detail on how she is achieving tolerance in the human bodies called “mixed chimerism.” The other side of xenotransplantation talks about how it could transmit very deadly diseases to the whole world. Since the studies are so new there is no way for researchers to know for sure if things are safe. It also discusses the effects on humans and animals.
Analysis:
I have a feeling that this section in the book will be of very much use to me. It has a lot of good information on both sides as well as information on how xenotransplantation works. The way the information is written in this book is also very helpful. It doesn’t have very many scientific words in it and instead describes things in a way for everyone to understand. Overall I feel that I will use a lot from this source.
Works Cited:
Egendorf, Laura. Medicine: Opposing Viewpoints. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven
Press, 2003. 105-116. Print.


Abraham Lincoln’s DNA and Other Adventures in Genetics
Summary:
The section from this book on xenotransplantation is a very good overview of everything. It talks about everything surrounding the technology such as why organs are so hard to find, how the field developed, how to fix the setbacks, and the ethics behind it. This book also uses a lot of examples from history to help the reader understand completely the reasons why this technology is being researched.
Analysis:
Overall I believe that this article will help me out tremendously. It has an overview of everything that I need to cover in my paper so it can be something that I look back on to see if I forgot any important details. It was a good source that was easy to understand and taught me more about the topics in my paper.
Works Cited:
Reilly, Philip R. Abraham Lincoln's DNA and Other Adventures in Genetics. Cold Spring
Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2000. 199-210. Print.



A7

Sarah Bauer
Leah Stahl
11/17/09
A7

Eating for Credit-Toulmin Method
Claim
Waters’ claim is that schools should integrate nutrition into every aspect of the students’ days. She says that these days children aren’t eating enough healthy foods and the schools are to blame. She believes that the schools should incorporate learning about nutritious foods into the curriculum and also include it in each class. Waters thinks that the reason there is an obesity crisis involving the children of America is because they are not being taught the right way to eat. They are learning that fast food is something that can be eaten everyday and they don’t know the importance of having a variety of fresh food to eat.

Grounds
Waters uses a lot of grounds throughout her essay. There are many examples and illustrations as well as statistics and reasons that help back up her ideas. When she talks about how the presidential council told us that our children weren’t fit, Waters is using authority. After she states that she goes into an illustration and talks about how we tried to do something by building gymnasiums and making physical education a part of the schools’ programs. Another example of illustration is when she talks about the program at a school she worked at that incorporated eating healthy into every class. Most of the illustrations in her essay are little blips about her life that help to portray her ideas better. Waters also uses statistics. She uses this when she states that nine million children over six are obese and also when she states that only a third of married couples with children report having dinner as a family regularly. Another aspect of grounds that Waters uses for her benefit is examples. A part in her essay where she uses examples is when she is talking about fast food and how bad it is for children. She uses examples by listing some of the different foods such as hamburgers, chicken nuggets, and French fries. One last aspect Waters incorporates is reason. After she states an opinion or a fact Waters follows it up with why these things are important to her beliefs. An example of this is at the end of her essay. Waters states that we need a revolution that will make kids think critically about what they eat. She follows this up with reasons to why she believes this and says that if we don’t take charge now children’s health will just get worse and worse and that their medical bills will be terrible.

Warrant
Waters’ warrant is that if schools incorporate nutrition programs into their curriculum then children will be forced to eat healthier. She thinks that if schools put more emphasis on eating fresh fruits and vegetables then kids will learn to be healthier and the obesity crisis would subside. This argument is pretty good but it emphasis more on just eating fruits and vegetables instead of eating the other food groups as well as working out.

Backing
Waters’ backing is very believable. She is an influential chef who is known worldwide and is also the owner of a restaurant in California. It also states that she believes in using the highest quality ingredients that are grown in an ecologically sound manner. After reading her credentials it just helped back up her ethos even more. It shows that she is knowledgeable in the topic she is talking about because she made a career out of it. Another aspect that helped make Waters believable is the use of her stories throughout her essay. When she talked about the program she was involved in at a middle school it showed that she did more than just talk about her ideas, she acted on them. This is what made me believe in what she had to say.

Rebuttal
Waters’ argument is good but it only goes so far. There is only so much that a school can do to try to get its students to eat better. The school can offer healthy alternatives and fresh fruits and vegetables but it doesn’t mean that the children will necessarily eat them. Another thing is that schools can try to teach children how to eat healthy but if the students don’t want to then there is really no way of making the ideas stick.